Covid time – Young People’s Mental and Emotional Health

Given the known rise in prevalence of mental illness from childhood to adolescence, particularly in girls, this analysis aims to dig more deeply into young people’s mental health and wellbeing in this period of life. Poor mental health in adolescence is strongly associated with poor mental health in adulthood, which, in turn, can affect relationships, societal engagement and productivity. Since the arrival of Covid-19, the prevalence of probable mental disorders has risen substantially to one in six young people, from one in nine in 2017.

We find that as children move into adolescence, self-esteem is more strongly correlated with both wellbeing and levels of psychological distress, suggesting that as young people get older, how they see and value themselves becomes more closely tied to how they feel about their lives generally. This is of particular concern for girls, a significant proportion of whom struggle with body image issues and lower self-esteem.

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Covid-19 recovery and resilience: what can health and care learn from other disasters?

As Covid-19 swept the globe, countries scrambled to tackle the immediate threat of the virus. Entire new hospitals were built in just days, people have been required to restrict their activities on a scale previously inconceivable during peacetime and a new class of vaccine was developed, trialled and approved within a matter of months. The scale of the emergency response has been extraordinary. But what comes next?

When a disaster, such as an earthquake, a flood or a pandemic, hits emergency plans are quickly enacted and command-and-control structures mobilised. But how to manage recovery isn’t always so clear. How do individuals, communities and countries recover from catastrophic events? How do we know what support is needed, which groups should be prioritised and how should efforts be co-ordinated and managed? And what role should the health and care system play in recovery?

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In the wake of the pandemic Preparing for Long COVID

Over the past year the world has tracked the progress of the COVID-19 pandemic using data on cases and deaths. Yet we now know that these provide only a partial picture. Many people struggle to recover from the acute infection, suffering often disabling symptoms that last weeks or months and, in some cases, with disabilities that are likely to be very long lasting. Our understanding of this new condition, now termed Long COVID, is growing rapidly. For this, we owe a great deal to many people, but especially to those affected who have come together to document, analyse and report on the complex nature of this condition and its impact on their lives, as well as the health professionals, in some cases themselves suffering from Long COVID, who have initiated important research projects.

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The social challenge in times of COVID-19

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has severe health effects and serious implications for economic growth and social development. It has arrived in Latin America and the Caribbean in a context of low growth —as analysed in the previous special reports on the subject (ECLAC, 2020a and 2020b)— and, above all, of marked inequality and vulnerability, with growing poverty and extreme poverty, weakening of social cohesion and expressions of social discontent. „ Quarantines and physical distancing measures, which are needed to stop the rapid spread of the coronavirus and save lives, are leading to job losses (11.6 million more unemployed in 2020, compared to 2019) and reducing personal and household labour income. The loss of income is primarily affecting the broad strata of the population that are living in or vulnerable to poverty, and people working in activities that are more exposed to layoffs and pay cuts and, in general, those in precarious employment.

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Karl Polanyi and discussions on renewed socialism

The paper reconstructs Karl Polanyi’s search process for a socialist answer to the crisis of capitalist civilization in the first half of the 20th century. Polanyi focused on the question of how the conditions for responsible freedom can be realized under the conditions of a complex society. For Polanyi, this only seemed possible if a new Great Transformation of society were to take place, leaving the capitalist market society behind. Polanyi concentrated on three paths: (1) the diminishing of the commodity character of natural resources, labor and money; (2) the comprehensive democratization of economic decisions on the basis of deglobalization and intraregional cooperation; and (3) the institutional safeguarding of individual freedom at the expense of economic efficiency.

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Actualidad de la crítica de Karl Polanyi a la sociedad de mercados

La crítica de Karl Polanyi a la sociedad de mercado es una herramienta muy poderosa
para comprender nuestra realidad social actual y formular una crítica creativa y
propositiva que coadyuve a la construcción de una sociedad justa, equitativa, humana
y comprometida con el futuro de la vida en el planeta. Una comparación entre la
sociedad criticada por Polanyi y la nuestra permite descubrir la vigencia de sus
conceptos fundamentales, así como de su método, para la elaboración de un nuevo
discurso crítico que no sólo aproveche el legado del autor, sino que también lo amplíe,
precise y actualice

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Adolescent resilience: a concept analysis

There is need for greater clarity around the concept of resilience as it relates to the period of adolescence. Literature on resilience published between 1990 and 2000 and relevant to adolescents aged between 12- and 18-years of age was reviewed with the aim of examining the various uses of the term, and commenting on how specific ways of conceptualizing of resilience may help develop new research agendas in the field. By bringing together ideas on resilience from a variety of research and clinical perspectives, the purpose of the review is to explicate core elements of resilience in more precise ways, in the hope that greater conceptual clarity will lead to a range of tailored interventions that benefit young people.

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Self-esteem in adolescence: the role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours

The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students (Mage=18.6 years, s.d.=1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour, and self-esteem. Structural equation modelling revealed that parental attachment had mostly direct effects on self-esteem. Among females, the links between peer attachment and self-esteem, however, were entirely mediated by empathy and prosocial behaviour. The findings from this study suggest that although close supportive relationships with parents and peers are related to adolescent self-esteem, these links are complex.

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Parental and peer attachment and identity development in adolescence

The main aim of this study was to test the situational hypothesis of parent–peer conflict and the parent-peer linkages hypothesis with regard to parental and peer attachment and identity. The situational hypothesis predicts that parental attachment will be associated with school identity and peer attachment with relational identity. The parent–peer linkages hypothesis suggests that parental attachment influences peer attachment and through peer attachment school and relational identity. Data from a survey of 148 middle adolescents from various ethnic groups were used. The findings offer strong support for the situational hypothesis, and only limited evidence in favor of the parent–peer linkages hypothesis. In addition, systematic links were found between parent and peer trust and commitment, and parent and peer communication and exploration. Adolescents from ethnic minority groups reported higher levels of school commitment and exploration compared with indigenous Dutch adolescents. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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It is all in their mind: A review on information processing bias in lonely individuals

Loneliness is a distressing emotional state that motivates individuals to renew and maintain social contact. It has been suggested that lonely individuals suffer from a cognitive bias towards social threatening stimuli. However, current models of loneliness remain vague on how this cognitive bias is expressed in lonely individuals. The current review provides an up-to-date overview of studies examining loneliness in relation to various aspects of cognitive functioning. These studies are interpreted in light of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model. A wide range of studies indicate that lonely individuals have a negative cognitive bias in all stages of SIP. More specifically, lonely individuals have an increased attention for social threatening stimuli, hold negative and hostile intent attributions, expect rejection, evaluate themselves and others negatively, endorse less promotion- and more prevention-oriented goals, and have a low self-efficacy. This negative cognitive bias seems specific to the social context. Avenues for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Loneliness is assumed to be associated with a cognitive bias towards threats. A wide range of studies on lonely individuals confirms this cognitive bias. This bias occurs in all information processing stages. The cognitive bias is specific to the social context. More research into long-term effects, using multi-informant reports, is needed.

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