Teachers as brain engineers

A study from the University of Washington found that when children with reading difficulties underwent an intensive tutoring program, their brains’ white matter strengthened, and their reading skills improved.

The early years are when the brain develops the most, forming neural connections that pave the way for how a child — and the eventual adult — will express feelings, embark on a task, and learn new skills and concepts. Scientists have even theorized that the anatomical structure of neural connections forms the basis for how children identify letters and recognize words. In other words, the brain’s architecture may predetermine who will have trouble with reading, including children with dyslexia.

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Posted in Brain, Student, Teaching | Tagged , ,

Impact of Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence on Education

At present school and colleges are expanding very much quantitatively but less attention is being paid at the quality of education. In order to improve the quality of any course, the present study will be conducted, and this study is related to the improvement of the selection criterion of candidates by introducing the significance of testing emotional intelligence also. Till now the gold standard of selection the candidates for any course, has been cognitive intelligence tests. Previous researches had proved that emotional intelligence is much more important than cognitive intelligence. Then it should also be measured or tested. In other words if a student is cognitively intelligent, will he/she also be emotionally intelligent relatively or not. Is it different according to sex, locality etc. so in order to find out the difference between cognitive and emotional intelligence of students we have performed this study.

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Posted in Cognitive intelligence, Education, Emotional intelligence | Tagged , ,

Evolution of cooperation in stochastic games

Social dilemmas occur when incentives for individuals are misaligned with group interests1–7. According to the ‘tragedy of the commons’, these misalignments can lead to overexploitation and the collapse of public resources. The resulting behaviors can be analyzed with the tools of game theory8. The theory of direct reciprocity9–15 suggests that repeated interactions can alleviate such dilemmas, but previous work has assumed that the public resource remains constant over time. Here we introduce the idea that the public resource is instead changeable and depends on the strategic choices of individuals. An intuitive scenario is that cooperation increases the public resource, whereas defection decreases it. Thus, cooperation allows the possibility of playing a more valuable game with higher payoffs, whereas defection leads to a less valuable game. We analyze this idea using the theory of stochastic games16–19 and evolutionary game theory. We find that the dependence of the public resource on previous interactions can greatly enhance the propensity for cooperation. For these results, the interaction between reciprocity and payoff feedback is crucial: neither repeated interactions in a constant environment nor single interactions in a changing environment yield similar cooperation rates. Our framework shows which feedback between exploitation and environment—either naturally occurring or designed—help to overcome social dilemmas.

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Posted in Cooperation | Tagged

Understanding the social dynamics that cause cooperation to thrive, or fail

Certain types of social networks can paradoxically lead to cooperation’s collapse. Biologists address the question of how an evolving social network influences the likelihood of cooperation in a theoretical social group. They find that, although networks, where connected individuals are closely related, are more likely to cooperate, such groups can trigger a feedback loop that alters the structure of the network and leads to cooperation’s collapse.

The evolutionary dynamics of social traits depend crucially on the social structure of a population. The effects of social structure on social behaviors are well-studied, but relatively little is known about how social structure itself coevolves with social traits. Here, I study such coevolution with a simple yet realistic model of within-group social structure where social connections are either inherited from a parent or made randomly. I show that cooperation evolves when individuals make few random connections, but the presence of cooperation selects for increased rates of random connections, which leads to its collapse. Inherent costs of social connections can prevent this negative feedback, but these costs can negate some or all of the aggregate benefits of cooperation. Exogenously maintained social inheritance can mitigate the latter problem and allow cooperation to increase the average fitness of a population. These results illustrate how coevolutionary dynamics can constrain the long-term persistence of cooperation.

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Posted in Cooperation, Social cooperation | Tagged ,

Can Empathy Promote Cooperation When Status and Money Matter?

‘Lower status’ people more likely to share wealth than ‘higher status’ people. When playing an economic game those that were assigned as ‘lower status’ were more likely to share their wealth than their ‘higher status’ counterparts, according to a new study.

In the present study we ask, Does empathy also support cooperative behaviors when the status (high, low) of an individual differs relative to other group members and is determined by either chance or effort? In response to this unexplored question, the present study involved a series of 4 experiments using a linear public goods game (Experiment 1–3, 4-player; Experiment 4, 2-player). Regardless of the way in which status was achieved (chance, effort), those with low status cooperated more compared with their high-status counterparts. Empathy in and of itself revealed very small overall increases in cooperative behavior. Overall, status and monetary incentives appear to be more salient than empathy in guiding behaviors in a social dilemma task.

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Posted in Cooperation, Empathy, Socio-economic status | Tagged , ,

Extended cognition meets epistemology

This article examines the intersection of the theory of extended mind/cognition and theory of knowledge. In the minds of some, it matters to conditions for knowing whether the mind extends beyond the boundaries of body and brain. I examine these intuitions and find no support for this view from tracking theories of knowledge. I then argue that the apparent difference extended mind is supposed to have for ability or credit theories is also illusory.

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Posted in Epistemology, Extended cognition | Tagged ,

Collective intentionality, evolutionary biology and social reality

The paper aims to clarify and scrutinize Searle”s somewhat puzzling statement that collective intentionality is a biologically primitive phenomenon. It is argued that the statement is not only meant to bring out that “collective intentionality” is not further analyzable in terms of individual intentionality. It also is meant to convey that we have a biologically evolved innate capacity for collective intentionality. The paper points out that Searle”s dedication to a strong notion of collective intentionality considerably delimits the scope of his endeavor. Furthermore, evolutionary theory does not vindicate that an innate capacity for collective intentionality is a necessary precondition for cooperative behavior.

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Posted in Collective intentionality | Tagged

Empathy and Collective Intentionality

Two issues have been at center stage in recent social philosophy, both in the analytic and the continental tradition: on the one hand, the nature of interpersonal understanding, or empathy; on the other hand, the possibility and nature of collective intentionality, shared emotions, and group agency. Indeed, there are not many who have investigated more thoroughly both these issues, and, even if not quite explicitly, their complex interrelation, than the philosopher Edith Stein (1891–1942). This special issue explores Edith Stein’s social philosophy, especially as expounded in her phenomenological writings from the 1910s and 1920s. In particular, it will investigate the systematic links between Stein’s pioneering work on empathy (Stein 1917), and her less known but certainly not less original theory of collective intentionality and community (Stein 1922).

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Posted in Collective intentionality, Empathy | Tagged ,

Theories of Self‐esteem

Self‐esteem refers to the overall positive or negative attitude an individual takes toward himself or herself. Understanding self‐esteem also requires awareness of related terms, especially self and self‐concept, along with an appreciation of their similarities and differences. Figure 1 illustrates how self, self‐concept, and self‐esteem are causally related, and the outcomes typically associated with self‐esteem. Although hierarchical in terms of abstractness and general causality, lower order concepts and outcomes can also influence higher order ones. (Note that identity and ideal self are listed to acknowledge that self‐concept is composed of more than self‐esteem, but the former, and related concepts, are beyond the scope of this entry.)

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Posted in Self‐esteem | Tagged