This paper provides a review of pedagogical models and frameworks, focusing on those that are being used most extensively in an e-learning context. The introductory section outlines the purpose of the report, the main sources of data and the key definitions used in the report. An overview is also provided of learning theories and the range of ‘Mediating Artefacts’ that are used in learning and teaching, of which pedagogical models and frameworks form a sub-category. Learning theories are grouped into three categories:
Associative (learning as activity through structured tasks),
Cognitive (learning through understanding)
Situative (learning as social practice).
Teachers, learners and developers use a range of these mediating artefacts (MAs) to support and guide decision making, ranging from rich contextually located examples of good practice (case studies, guidelines, etc.) to more abstract forms of representation which distil out the ‘essences’ of good practice (models or patterns). Five common types of MAs are described in the report:
Narratives and case studies
Tables and matrices
Models and frameworks
The main section of the report describes twenty models and frameworks. Thirteen of these are categorised according to whether they principally support associative, cognitive or situative learning perspectives, five are categorised as generic in nature and two are primarily about assessment practice. The final section considers the benefits of articulating pedagogical models and frameworks, but also some of their limitations. The table below summarises the frameworks and models discussed.