The authors examine the limitations of critical pedagogy, as commonly conceptualized in U.S. multicultural and social foundations fields. What the authors have concluded is that there is a definite need to re-invent critical pedagogy for its implementation in the more privileged spaces of U.S. teacher education programs. In order for critical pedagogy to bring about wide-scale transformation of social inequalities in the U.S., it must be re-envisioned, at least in part, around inquiries into the identity formations of those in oppressor groups. It must also be more willing to embrace the empowerment found in the development of positive identities for those in oppressor groups. In general, these positive identities should be “ideologically consistent” in their commitment to social justice for all oppressed groups. The article outlines a refinement of critical pedagogy that deals more explicitly with students from oppressor groups and, to a lesser extent, those in oppressed groups who have internalized the discourse of the oppressor.
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