In this contribution, we warn against being too optimistic about the actual democratic effects of notions like ‘‘civil media”, ‘‘community media” ‘‘alternative media”, ‘‘grassroots media”, ‘‘participatory media”, or ‘‘participatory culture”. We argue that in contemporary society, which is characterized by structural inequalities, an understanding of alternative media as participatory media is insufﬁcient. As an alternative concept, we suggest the notion of alternative media as critical media. This concept is grounded in critical social theory. A typology of approaches for deﬁning alternative media is constructed. We argue that alternative media need to be situated in the context of visions of an alternative society.
Research Professor on society, culture, art, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, neuroscience, autopoiesis, self-organization, complexity, systems, networks, rhizomes, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++
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