But if education is educational precisely because it shapes the subjectivity of those being educated then it is impossible to distinguish this conception of education from planned enculturation or training. It would seem, therefore, that if we want to separate the concept of education from that of unguided learning, we are then lumped with a conception of education as planned enculturation. This introduces a problem. The problem is that in contemporary multicultural societies there are ethical and political issues around decisions about which or whose culture people should be trained into through education. Who decides this and on what grounds? Whose knowledge or culture is of most worth? It is precisely in this regard that we believe complexity science can be of help to educators because it shows how it is possible to keep the notion of education as structured guidance without using it as a tool for planned enculturation. How is this possible?
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