The essay discusses the role and meaning of ethics in the working and organization of the economy and the relationships of this with other branches of social system; it seems to us this is the core of the ethical question from a scientific standpoint. The discussion drives to explore the logical possibility and, in some sense, the growing necessity to build up an economic and social system more appropriate to modern world than the current ones. In fact, if such possibility exists and is proved, it will be carried out sooner or later.
The paper starts from a crucial ethical question for the analysis and governance of societies and the understanding of growth process: the relations between diversity and equality and hence between freedom-creativity and social justice. It follows a brief historical perspective on outstanding civilizations and the advent of capitalism, directed to provide the analysis with depth and a wide generalization. Afterwards the essay concentrates on economics and its relationships with social system.