In complex systems the degree of homogeneity (vs. Heterogeneity) and connectivity (vs. Modularity) determines whether or not there is a phase transition from one state to another. These are called critical transitions, and there are current efforts to understand both what factors are signicant in causing these transitions and what factors are significant in predicting the fragility of these systems, or the susceptibility to the induction of a phase transition by some external shock. Complex phenomena in a wide range of fields can be studied using these ideas combined with the idea of critical slowing down. Approaches to complex systems in several examples will be discussed, with a focus on living systems.
Research Professor on society, culture, art, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, neuroscience, autopoiesis, self-organization, complexity, systems, networks, rhizomes, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++
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