Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Lev Vygotsky created a theory of psychological development that has become increasingly influential in recent decades. The theory is viewed by some psychologists and pedagogues as alternative way to understand the development of children and adults in a way that differs substantially from the dominant psychological models that have long been widely accepted, including Piaget.

Vygotskian psychology includes many important concepts that are not found in, or at last are not central to, other psychological theories. Among the most important concepts are (1) the existence of higher psychological functions that differ from lower psychological functions, (2) the mediated nature of higher psychological functions, (3) the existence of internal and external tools that transform the structure of mental function, (4) the central importance of culture and history, as a process of becoming, in development, (5) zone of proximal development.


About Giorgio Bertini

Research Professor. Founder Director at Learning Change Project - Research on society, culture, art, neuroscience, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, autopoiesis, self-organization, rhizomes, complexity, systems, networks, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++
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