A long time ago, people discovered the variety of the interesting insect or animal behaviors in nature. A flock of birds sweeps across the sky. A group of ants forages for food. A school of sh swims, turns, as together, etc.. We call this kind of aggregate motion \swarm behavior.” Recently biologists and computer scientists in the eld of \articial life” have studied how to model biological swarms to understand how such \social animals” interact, achieve goals, and evolve. Moreover, engineers are increasingly interested in this kind of swarm behavior since the resulting \swarm intelligence” can be applied in optimization (e.g. in telecommunicate systems) , robotics [3, 4], trac patterns in transportation systems, and military applications .
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