Theories of Self‐esteem

Self‐esteem refers to the overall positive or negative attitude an individual takes toward himself or herself. Understanding self‐esteem also requires awareness of related terms, especially self and self‐concept, along with an appreciation of their similarities and differences. Figure 1 illustrates how self, self‐concept, and self‐esteem are causally related, and the outcomes typically associated with self‐esteem. Although hierarchical in terms of abstractness and general causality, lower order concepts and outcomes can also influence higher order ones. (Note that identity and ideal self are listed to acknowledge that self‐concept is composed of more than self‐esteem, but the former, and related concepts, are beyond the scope of this entry.)


About Giorgio Bertini

Research Professor. Founder Director at Learning Change Project - Research on society, culture, art, neuroscience, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, autopoiesis, self-organization, rhizomes, complexity, systems, networks, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++
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