Adolescent resilience: a concept analysis

There is need for greater clarity around the concept of resilience as it relates to the period of adolescence. Literature on resilience published between 1990 and 2000 and relevant to adolescents aged between 12- and 18-years of age was reviewed with the aim of examining the various uses of the term, and commenting on how specific ways of conceptualizing of resilience may help develop new research agendas in the field. By bringing together ideas on resilience from a variety of research and clinical perspectives, the purpose of the review is to explicate core elements of resilience in more precise ways, in the hope that greater conceptual clarity will lead to a range of tailored interventions that benefit young people.

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Self-esteem in adolescence: the role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours

The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students (Mage=18.6 years, s.d.=1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour, and self-esteem. Structural equation modelling revealed that parental attachment had mostly direct effects on self-esteem. Among females, the links between peer attachment and self-esteem, however, were entirely mediated by empathy and prosocial behaviour. The findings from this study suggest that although close supportive relationships with parents and peers are related to adolescent self-esteem, these links are complex.

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Parental and peer attachment and identity development in adolescence

The main aim of this study was to test the situational hypothesis of parent–peer conflict and the parent-peer linkages hypothesis with regard to parental and peer attachment and identity. The situational hypothesis predicts that parental attachment will be associated with school identity and peer attachment with relational identity. The parent–peer linkages hypothesis suggests that parental attachment influences peer attachment and through peer attachment school and relational identity. Data from a survey of 148 middle adolescents from various ethnic groups were used. The findings offer strong support for the situational hypothesis, and only limited evidence in favor of the parent–peer linkages hypothesis. In addition, systematic links were found between parent and peer trust and commitment, and parent and peer communication and exploration. Adolescents from ethnic minority groups reported higher levels of school commitment and exploration compared with indigenous Dutch adolescents. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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It is all in their mind: A review on information processing bias in lonely individuals

Loneliness is a distressing emotional state that motivates individuals to renew and maintain social contact. It has been suggested that lonely individuals suffer from a cognitive bias towards social threatening stimuli. However, current models of loneliness remain vague on how this cognitive bias is expressed in lonely individuals. The current review provides an up-to-date overview of studies examining loneliness in relation to various aspects of cognitive functioning. These studies are interpreted in light of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model. A wide range of studies indicate that lonely individuals have a negative cognitive bias in all stages of SIP. More specifically, lonely individuals have an increased attention for social threatening stimuli, hold negative and hostile intent attributions, expect rejection, evaluate themselves and others negatively, endorse less promotion- and more prevention-oriented goals, and have a low self-efficacy. This negative cognitive bias seems specific to the social context. Avenues for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Loneliness is assumed to be associated with a cognitive bias towards threats. A wide range of studies on lonely individuals confirms this cognitive bias. This bias occurs in all information processing stages. The cognitive bias is specific to the social context. More research into long-term effects, using multi-informant reports, is needed.

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Understanding loneliness during adolescence: Developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation

Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence.

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Adolescence – socialization of identity formation

A developmental social psychology of identity: understanding the person-in-context.

This essay focuses on the socialization of identity formation. It provides a theory about the developmental social psychology of identity. A set of propositions are derived from the authors’reading, research, cultural observations and clinical experience regarding adolescent identity formation. The essay covers the socialization process, nature of the self, processes of growth and development, person-in-context, and a statement on the linkage between macro- and micro-environmental influences on identity. The theoretical propositions are offered for their potential heuristic utility in the study of identity formation during adolescence and young adulthood.

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Metacognition: Ideas and Insights from Neuro- and Educational Sciences

Metacognition comprises both the ability to be aware of one’s cognitive processes (metacognitive knowledge) and to regulate them (metacognitive control). Research in educational sciences has amassed a large body of evidence on the importance of metacognition in learning and academic achievement. More recently, metacognition has been studied from experimental and cognitive neuroscience perspectives. This research has started to identify brain regions that encode metacognitive processes. However, the educational and neuroscience disciplines have largely developed separately with little crosstalk. In this article, we review the literature on metacognition in educational and cognitive neuroscience and identify entry points for synthesis. We argue that to improve our understanding of metacognition, future research needs to (i) investigate the degree to which different protocols relate to the similar or different metacognitive constructs and processes, (ii) implement experiments to identify neural substrates necessary for metacognition based on protocols used in educational sciences, (iii) study the effects of training metacognitive knowledge in the brain, and (iv) perform developmental research in the metacognitive brain and compare it with the existing developmental literature from educational sciences regarding the domain-generality of metacognition.

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Willpower Is the Key to Enhancing Learning and Memory

An increase in theta oscillations in the hippocampus help make learning and subsequent memory more efficient.

Active or voluntary learning is a major topic in education, psychology, and neuroscience. Over the years, numerous studies have shown that when learning occurs through voluntary action, there is a modulation of attention, motivation and cognitive control that makes the process much more effective. Consequently, memory is benefited. However, although the physiological processes underlying this reality had been identified in the brain of mice, their existence in our species had not been corroborated.

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Three types of knowledge

When addressing societal challenges, how can researchers orient their thinking to produce not only knowledge on problems, but also knowledge that helps to overcome those problems?

The concept of ‘three types of knowledge’ is helpful for structuring project goals, formulating research questions and developing action plans. The concept first appeared in the 1990s and has developed into a core underpinning of transdisciplinary research.

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The toxic legacy of parent shaming – and the damage it does to children

Shaming parents for the way they are bringing up their children is nothing new. Parent shaming and blaming has long been a recurring theme in expert narratives on child-rearing. In the 19th century, parents were frequently accused of lacking the moral and intellectual resources necessary to bring up children. They were also frequently castigated for setting a bad example for their children.

Parental incompetence was perceived as particularly debilitating in relation to the management of children’s anxieties and fears. From the late 19th century onwards, experts asserted that parents needed to shield their children from exposure to fear. They claimed that abolishing fear from childhood was essential for the well-being of young people.

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