Tag Archives: reciprocity

Between Justice and Accumulation: Aristotle on Currency and Reciprocity

For Aristotle, a just political community has to find similarity in difference and foster habits of reciprocity. Conventionally, speech and law have been seen to fulfill this role. This article reconstructs Aristotle’s conception of currency (nomisma) as a political institution … Continue reading

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Reciprocity in Crisis Situations

Crises, by their very nature, are characterized by a feeling of being overwhelmed, as we are faced with situations that call for responses above and beyond those which we normally have to face and for which we have developed the … Continue reading

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The Roots of Reciprocity: Gratitude and Reputation in Generalized Exchange Systems

Social scientists often study the flow of material and social support as generalized exchange systems. These systems are associated with an array of benefits to groups and communities, but their existence is problematic, because individuals may be motivated to take … Continue reading

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The burden of reciprocity: Processes of exclusion and withdrawal from personal networks

Reciprocity has been traditionally treated in sociological and anthropological theory as a force of integration that keeps network members tied together through a complex web of obligations and interdependencies. This article suggests that in the context of poverty it can … Continue reading

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Reciprocity an important component of prosocial behavior

While exchanging favors with others, humans tend to think in terms of tit-for-tat, an assumption easily extended to other animals. As a result, reciprocity is often viewed as a cognitive feat requiring memory, perhaps even calculation. But what if the … Continue reading

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The Social Contagion of Generosity

Why do people help strangers when there is a low probability that help will be directly reciprocated or socially rewarded? A possible explanation is that these acts are contagious: those who receive or observe help from a stranger become more … Continue reading

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Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation

Current thinking in evolutionary biology holds that competition among individuals is the key to understanding natural selection. When competition exists, it is obvious that conflict arises; the emergence of cooperation, however, is less straightforward and calls for in-depth analysis. Much … Continue reading

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The Interplay of Cognition and Cooperation

Cooperation often involves behaviours that reduce immediate payoffs for actors. Delayed benefits have often been argued to pose problems for the evolution of cooperation because learning such contingencies may be difficult as partners may cheat in return. Therefore, the ability … Continue reading

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