This contribution summarizes some typical features of complex systems such as non-linear interactions, chaotic dynamics, the ‘‘butterﬂy effect’’, phase transitions, self-organized criticality, cascading effects, and power laws. These imply sometimes quite unexpected, counter-intuitive, or even paradoxical behaviors of socioeconomic systems. A typical example is the faster-is-slower effect. Due to their tendency of self-organization, complex systems are often hard to control. Instead of trying to control their behavior, it would often be better to pursue the approach of guided self-organization, i.e. to use the driving forces of the system rather than to ﬁght against them. This is illustrated by the example of hierarchical systems, which need to fulﬁll certain principles in order to be efﬁcient and robust in an ever-changing environment. We also discuss the important role of ﬂuctuations and heterogeneity for the adaptability, ﬂexibility and robustness of complex systems. The presentation is enriched by a number of examples ranging from decision behavior up to production systems and disaster spreading.
Research Professor on society, culture, art, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, neuroscience, autopoiesis, self-organization, complexity, systems, networks, rhizomes, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++
5000 Posts in this Blog
- Follow Learning Change on WordPress.com